Manuscript Preparation

Authors' Guide for Manuscript Preparation for Tribology Online

This is an authors' guide for the preparation of all categories of contribution for Tribology Online.

PDF version of Authors Guide - 20230501 [pdf, 317.8KB]

Manuscript template

This Microsoft (MS) Word template includes predefined styles to help format your manuscript.

Microsoft Word template file - 20230501 [dotx, 36.4KB]

Important Notes

Submission of your paper to our journal proceeds totally online by uploading of your electronic files. The uploaded files will be converted automatically to PDF file for your confirmation, peer-review process and your archival purpose. Please DO NOT upload PDF file. Currently, we can accept the following types of files:
  • Manuscript (main text): MS Word (doc(x))
  • Tables: MS Word (editable and not embedded objects)
  • Figures: EPS format for vector graphics and TIFF or JPEG (jpg) format for bitmap images (Figures in MS PowerPoint (ppt(x)) are also acceptable.)
  • Graphical abstract (optional): JPEG (jpg), GIF or PNG format

Upload table and figure files one by one. Tables and figures may be embedded in the text for the convenience of reviewers. However, even in that case, all tables and figures must also be submitted in separate files.

When submitting revised manuscript after peer-review process, use RED-COLORED FONT to indicate revisions in manuscript. DO NOT use underline. ‘Response to reviewers’ file (MS Word) is required.

1. Manuscript format

Manuscripts should be prepared using accepted word-processing software (MS Word), and the text should be double-spaced in single-column format (accepted manuscripts after peer-review process will be typeset in double-column layout for publication).
 All pages should be numbered consecutively starting with the title page. A standard font (Times New Roman or equivalent) of 10 points (or greater) should be used.

The following sections of the manuscript should be assembled in the following sequence:
 Title and List of Authors (single page)
 Abstract and Keywords (single page)
 Table and Figure captions
Figures and tables can be inserted in the manuscript file, but please be sure to also upload their original files separately.

Sections should be numbered 1, 2, etc. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (Abstract is not included in section numbering). Any subsection should be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. The recommended font for headings is 10-point Times New Roman. First-level headings should be in boldface.

2. Front Matter

2.1 Title and List of Authors

The title page should include:
  • A concise and informative title
  • Name(s) of the author(s)
  • Affiliation(s) and full postal address(es) of the author(s)
  • E-mail address of the corresponding author

Title should be centered on full width of the first page with spacing: one extra line inserted above title and one below title. The recommended font for title is 14-point Times New Roman.
 Author name(s) and affiliation(s) should also be centered on full width of page. One extra line should be inserted from author name(s) and affiliation(s).

2.2 Abstract and Keywords

Abstract of no more than 200 words should open the paper. Abstract should not refer to tables, figures and references that appear in the body of manuscript.
 List five to ten keywords, with lower case initials except for proper nouns, on a separate line below abstract.

2.3 Graphical Abstract

Graphical abstract should summarize the essence of the paper in a single image to capture the attention of a wide readership. It should be submitted as a separate image file of JPEG (jpg), GIF or PNG format with a minimum width of 800 pixels.

3. Use of SI units

SI units should be used in text, figures and tables.

4. Mathematical

All equations, or any mathematical expressions, should be included in the manuscript. Equations referred to in the text should be numbered consecutively. The equation numbers should be enclosed in parentheses as (1), (2), etc., and the equations should be referred to as “Eq. (1),” or “Equation (1)” at the beginning of a sentence.


Equations should be editable and not embedded images. The use of MS Equation Editor or Wiris Mathtype is strongly recommended.
 Care should be taken to avoid confusion among capital letters, lowercase letters and numerals, e.g., “l” and “1,” or “O”, “o” and “0.”
 Care should also be taken to ensure that equations fit into single-column width (80 mm) in double-column layout for publication. Fractional powers are preferred to root signs, and the solidus (/) instead of the horizontal line for fractions, if those will help to break a long equation into multiple lines.

5. Figures

All figures should be uploaded separately in graphic file formats mentioned afterwards.
 All figures should be numbered consecutively. Figure parts should be denoted by lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.).
 Each figure should have a concise caption describing accurately what the figure depicts. Include the captions in the text file of the manuscript, not in the figure file. Figure captions begin with the term Fig., followed by the figure number. Figures should be referred to in the text as “Fig. 1,” or “Figure 1” at the beginning of a sentence.

If a figure is reproduced from a third-party material, the authors must obtain permission from the copyright holder of the material, and indicate the reference number of the original source and the name of the copyright holder in the caption to the figure as in the following example:
 "Reproduced with permission from [71] Copyright (2019) American Chemical Society."

For vector graphics, the preferred format is EPS; for bitmap images, please use TIFF format. Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
 Name figure files with "Fig" and the figure number, e.g., Fig1.eps.
 Bitmap images should have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi for line art, 300 dpi for photographic images, and 600 dpi for combinations (line art and photographic images).
 Final published size is width of 80 mm for single-column figures or 170 mm for two-column figures (full page width) and maximum height of 220 mm.
 Please use appropriate line width and font size to ensure that all lines, symbols and labels are legible at final size.

6. Tables

All tables should be uploaded separately as MS Word files (editable and not embedded objects).
 All tables should be numbered consecutively.
 For each table, please supply a table caption (title) explaining the contents of the table.
 Final published size is width of 80 mm for single-column tables or 170 mm for double-column tables (full page width) and maximum height of 220 mm.

If a table is reproduced from a third-party material, the authors must obtain permission from the copyright holder of the material, and indicate the reference number of the original source and the name of the copyright holder in the caption to the table in the same way as that in the case of the reproduced figure described in the above section.

7. References

All bibliographical references should be numbered and listed at the end of the manuscript in a section called “References.” References should be written in the Vancouver style (see, e.g., the National Library of Medicine’s Sample References available from: and cited in the text by numbers in square brackets. The reference numbers and square brackets appear inside the punctuation if the citation applies to a whole sentence or clause [1]. When more than one reference is cited in one place, separate the numbers by commas without spaces [2,3].

References to journal articles should include author(s), title of article, name of journal, year of publication, volume number (if any), issue number in parentheses (if any) and inclusive page numbers of article [1-4].
 References to conference papers should include author(s), title of paper, title of conference proceedings, volume number (if any), date of conference, location of conference, place of publication, publisher, year of publication and inclusive page numbers of paper [5,6].
 References to books should include author(s), title, publisher, location, year of publication and inclusive page numbers cited [7].
 References to a patent should include author(s), title, country and type of patent, patent number and date of publication [8,9].
 References to standards should include number of standard, year of publication and title [10].
 References to internet documents should be avoided if possible; if not, they should include author(s) (if any), title followed by “[Internet]”, place of publication (if any), publisher (if any), date or year of publication, date of citation in brackets and full URL after “Available from” [11].

For non-English references, provide English translated title of article and/or publication, and indicate the original language as “(in Japanese)” [4,6,8].
 Article number may be used in place of page numbers [2].
 The addition of DOI (digital object identifier) is recommended [1,3].
 Unpublished works (including papers not yet submitted or not yet published) should be avoided. It is encouraged to cite articles published in Tribology Online, if possible.

[1] Nishikawa H, Kaneta M. Stribeck friction curve in point EHL contacts. Tribol Online. 2006;1(1): 1–4. doi:10.2474/trol.1.1
[2] Collin AB, Fake DE. In situ studies of wear process. J Tribol. 2015;137(1): 011301.
[3] Kano M. Super low Friction of DLC applied to engine cam follower lubricated with ester-containing oil. Tribol Int. 2006;39(12): 1682–1685. doi:10.1016/j.triboint.2006.02.068
[4] Suzuki T, Ogawa K, Hotta S. Influence of oxidized and nonmartensitic layer, and surface roughness on pitting fatigue strength of carburized steel. Trans JSME Ser C. 1998;64(622): 2199–2204 (in Japanese).
[5] Akita M. Investigation of the degradation of solid lubricants exposed to atomic oxygen. In: Proceedings of the International Tribology Conference Yokohama 1995, 1995 Oct 29–Nov 2, Yokohama, Japan. Tokyo: Japanese Society of Tribologists; 1996. p.235–241.
[6] Hachiya K. Relationship between friction coefficient, viscosity and compressibility of polyethylene glycol. In: Proceedings of the Tribology Conference 2007 Autumn Saga, 2007 Sep 26–28, Saga, Japan. p.243–244 (in Japanese).
[7] Johnson KL. Contact Mechanics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1985. p.299.
[8] Kameyama H. Production method of thermal conductive catalyst. Japan Patent Disclosure H2-144154. 1990 Jun 1 (in Japanese).
[9] Smith AC. Lubrication mechanism. United States Patent US 9,876,543. 2018 Jan 23.
[10] ISO 14040:2006. Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and framework Environmental management systems.
[11] Fluid Life. Initial pH (i-pH) of in-service lubricants [Internet]. 2002 [cited 2022 Jan 30]. Available from: